Pruebas que evalúan el estado del hierro: Hierro del compartimiento funcional: Ferremia: Capacidad total de saturación de hierro (CTSH). Transcript of Clasificacion de anemias. Disminución de la capacidad transportadora de oxigeno de la sangre. Adaptaciones fisiológicas. ANEMIAS. Dra. Ma. De la Luz Mendizábal R Hematóloga CLASIFICACION DE ANEMIAS Clasificación de Anemia. Relativa a) Macroglobulinemia.
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Alexandria Kristensen-Cabrera was the lead author and organized the case study through interviews with Dr. Luis Gabriel Cuervo as a mentor provided guidance and inspiration and reviewed and approved the final clasoficacion. Christopher Khanoyan assisted with formatting.
It is estimated that about half of the anemia in populations is due to iron deficiency.
Although iron deficiency is the most common cause, other vitamin and mineral deficiencies, chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, and inherited disorders can all cause anemia. Both anemia and iron deficiency have severe economic and health costs. Iron deficiency anemia compromises a child’s ability to learn, further compromises its future prospects and, in aggregate terms, hinders the development of the population.
The World Health Organization’s Clasfiicacion most recent estimates suggest that anemia affects around million children and women. Investment in preventing and managing micronutrient malnutrition results in improved health, a reduction in child and maternal mortality, and better earnings with a ‘benefit-to-cost ratio’ of almost 13 to 1 . Iron deficiency is the world’s most widespread micronutrient deficiency often resulting in chronic iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia defined by the WHO as hemoglobin levels?
The cut-off values vary by age, sex, altitude, smoking, and pregnancy status 1.
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To replenish iron stores, men require 0. High iron intake is also required for growth. Another estimate from the University of Toronto found that total cognitive and physical loss due to iron deficiency is around 4. Anemia has severe health consequences in pregnant women, infants, and children. Anemia in pregnancy has numerous health effects for the baby including increased risks of stunting, blindness, severe illnesses, decreased cognitive performance, spinal, and brain defects.
Anemia in pregnancy also increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and low-birth-weight thus increasing risks of infant mortality as well as birth complications causing hemorrhaging corresponding to an increased risk of maternal depression and maternal mortality . Additionally, infants and young children with iron deficiency anemia are more likely to have attention deficits, reduced motor coordination, and language difficulties .
For school age children, this type of anemia also decreases school participation . There is strong evidence showing that iron treatment for school age children can improve low-test scores of cognitive ability and education achievement 5.
It is critical to diagnose the cause of iron deficiency for appropriate treatment. One option to add iron to the diet is the iron fortification the addition of micronutrients to food of staple foods such as wheat flour, maize flour, and rice with iron and other vitamins and minerals. Some condiments, such as salt, fish sauces, and soy sauces can also be fortified with iron. Studies have shown that iron fortification corresponds with the reduction of anemia prevalence .
For example, the Food Fortification Initiative found evidence that suggests, but does definitively conclude, that anemia prevalence has significantly decreased in countries which utilize micronutrient fortification of flour while has not changed in countries that do not .
Another study looked at the effects of iron fortification of wheat and corn flour and found that fortification had a ‘protective effect’ against gestational anemia .
Fortification of cornmeal and maize flour can improve nutritional status if mandated at the national level in countries where these staples are frequently consumed. Two COCHRANE reviews are being conducted on the effects of the fortification of maize flour, wheat flour, and rice with iron and other vitamins and minerals for anemia .
A review on bioavailability of different iron compounds used in food fortification is available . Another option to prevent and treat anemia is iron supplementation. This is an effective technique, including as a preventive method to reduce the likelihood of maternal anemia in pregnant women . An intervention in rural Vietnam measured the effects of iron supplementation and iron fortified milk on the hemoglobin status of pregnant women. The study found that the “hemoglobin concentrations in both treatment groups were not significantly different” but hemoglobin levels were lower in the comparison groups with iron supplementation .
Iron fortification is a cost-effective option: Thus it is incredibly efficient: Excessive iron consumption or overload can be harmful, potentially leading to iron overload and blood disorders . However, iron overload due to extended iron supplement ingestion or fortification of flour is very rare .
Possible side effects of iron include diarrhea, constipation, and nausea with higher doses . To deploy efficient, feasible strategies for iron fortification as a solution to iron deficiency lws, it is important for each country qnemias address the recommendations of iron nutrition experts and the WHO in a systematic manner including legislation and research, address the bioavailability and the supply of iron fortification, educate the population on iron deficiency, and test individuals using clinical pathways for serum or plasma ferritin concentration as an index of iron deficiency and overload, as indicated in the figures 3 and 4 .
There are three main types of clasificaciob recognized by the WHO: Universal iron fortification, when there are no non-fortified options available, potentially puts those with hemochromatosis caused by an increase in iron intake at a greater risk for iron overload. Thus, targeted or market-driven approaches are often favored Groups at highest risk include pregnant women, infants, and school age children.
While there is substantial evidence of the effectiveness of iron clasuficacion and supplements to reduce iron deficiency anemia, the benefits are hindered due to low usage of preventive health services in developing countries, lack of infrastructure and national political drive for larger scale fortification of popular local foods, and incomplete enactment of preventive treatments.
It is critical to address these barriers, using research, to effectively prevent iron deficient anemia . According to a review on iron fortification of pas flour, “most current iron fortification programs are likely to be ineffective. Legislation needs updating in many countries so that flour is fortified with adequate levels of the recommended iron compounds” .
Thus, countries where flour is clasificzcion ingredient in staple foods, should adhere to WHO recommendations on levels of iron fortification in wheat and maize flour . It is important for countries to fortify staple foods in their respective countries.
Quality, targeted research is a critical component to addressing iron deficient anemia.
Iron deficiency anemia: Research on iron fortification for efficient, feasible solutions
Therefore, it is crucial to deploy research strategies with sound metrics allowing valid results comparable between countries and addressing health equity absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health.
R10  all activities to improve health should be informed on evidence therefore more effectively strengthening public health and improving health care outcomes. One efficient way to address lack of iron supply and bioavailability of iron in diets is iron fortification . Iron fortification may help to reduce iron deficiency anemia, which can have positive development effects across populations including improved cognitive and academic performance as well as decreased child birth defects, maternal and child mortality rates.
Improved cognitive and academic performance as well as less days of school missed can translate into a better-trained workforce resulting in economic gains. Decrease of negative health effects leads to a reduction of health care costs. In summary, there is a potential for efficient, viable conquer of iron deficiency and lack of iron supply which can result in improved health and development.
World Health Organization; The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity.
Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva, World Health Organization, http: The economics of iron deficiency.
Integrated strategies needed to prevent iron deficiency and to promote early child development. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology ;26 Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health. The effects of iron deficiency and anemia on mental and motor performance, education achievement, and behavior in children. International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group. Iron deficiency anemia and school participation. Poverty Action Lab Paper No.
PAHO/WHO | Iron deficiency anemia: Research on iron fortification for efficient, feasible solutions
Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour. British Journal of Nutrition ; 2: Effect of iron-fortified foods on hematologic and biological outcomes: Am J Clin Nutr. Effects of various iron fortificants on sensory acceptability and shelf-life stability of instant noodles. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. The United Nations University. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron. Food Science and Technology Campinas30 2 Wheat flour fortification with iron for reducing anaemia and improving iron status in populations Protocol.
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 9. Fortification of maize flour with iron for preventing anaemia and iron deficiency in populations Protocol. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue Fortification of rice with vitamins and minerals for addressing micronutrient malnutrition Protocol.
Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 6. Bioavailability of iron compounds for use in food fortification. Daily iron supplementation during pregnancy Review. Milk fortified with iron or iron supplementation to improve nutritional status of pregnant women: An intervention trial from rural Vietnam. Manual for wheat fortification with iron.
How is iron deficiency anemia treated? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Universal iron fortification of foods: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia E Hemoterapia34 6— Safety of flour fortification with iron. Serum or plasma ferritin concentration as an index of iron deficiency and overload. Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsIssue 7. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Revised recommendations for iron fortification of wheat flour and an evaluation of the expected impact of current national wheat flour fortification programs.